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Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve is preserve area that lies in the eastern Nepal with an area of 175 km2 (68sq m) of wetlands in the Sunsari, Saptari and Udayapur District. It is ranges from with an altitude of 75 to 81 m (246 to 266 ft) and compose of vast mudflats, reed beds and freshwater Marshes in the floodplain of the Sapta Koshi River. It was established in 1976 that is designated as a Ramsar site in 1987.
A study of the reserve was conducted between 1997-1978 by the Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University in Kathmandu. That study discovered serious conflict between wildlife and the local people living contiguous to the reserve. Local habitants suffered from crop depredation and animal harassment whereas the reserve mangers had the problem of poaching, cattle grazing and other illegal activities in the reserve. This survey has several recommendations such as recommendations promotion of tourism towards the reservation with the help of trained (by the wildlife exports) local tourist guides.
The vegetation of the reserve is mostly classified by mixed deciduous riverine forest, grassland and marshy vegetation. The coverage of grassland is 68% compared to only about 6% of forest that is predominate by Sisao, spot of Khair forest are more prevalent towards the North-West part. The Sapta Koshi River is a tributary of the Ganges, causes rapid and extreme flooding during the rainy season. Where we can find the vast wetlands, 514 species of plants including Kapok, Sugarcane, Reed, Cattail, Impetrate Cylindrical, Eelgrass and Species of Eichoirnia, Azolla , Lotus and Hydrilla as well as the various ponds, 200 species of fish, two Toad species, Nine frog species, Six Lizard species, Five Snake and 11 Turtle species, Gharial and Mugger crocodile are recorded.
Mammals: 31 species of mammals can be found such as the Asian Elephant, Spotted Deer, Hog Deer, Wild Pig, Smooth-Coated Otter and Golden Jackal. The Ganges River Dolphin has been sighted in the Koshi River whereas Gaur and Blue Bull have decrease in numbers. Nepal’s last remaining population of around 150 water Buffalo known as Arna inhabits of this area.
Birds: Notable among the 485 different species of birds are Weathercocks, Indian Nightjar, Dusky Eagle Owl, Black-Headed Cuckoo Shrike, White tailed stonechat, striated grass bird, large adjutant stork, Palla’s Fish Eagle, Common Golden-Eye and Gull Billed Tern, Bengal Florican, Swamp Francolin and Nepal refocus-vented Prinia occur as well.